Tigray War: Reconstructing a war-torn nation
The conflict in the Tigray Region between the Ethiopian government and the Tigrayan forces caught international attention in November 2020. A bloody civil war with growing political tensions and serious human rights violations was initiated. The Ethiopian and Eritrean governments have been accused of engaging in crimes against humanity and genocide via ethnic cleansing of Tigrayans. Moreover, the civil war has destabilized the surrounding regions and millions of people are in need of humanitarian assistance. Furthermore, the conflict in Tigray triggered an ongoing refugee and displacement crisis and famine has become widespread.
There is currently a ceasefire in place, which was negotiated by the African Union on 2 November 2022. However, this agreement does not create a comprehensive solution of the conflict at hand. Eritrean troops were not included in the peace negotiations, and the peace agreement fails to address the underlying growing political tensions. Moreover, this conflict has spilled over to neighboring countries like Sudan, which has caused Ethiopian-Sudan tensions to increase. International powers have also been involving themselves into the conflict by providing military support to the Ethiopian government, most notably Iran, Turkey and China. By addressing this topic in the Security Council, it creates the possibility of looking for a sustainable solution to the conflict and to bring back stability to the region.
The situation in Haiti
The second-oldest republic in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti has gone through a myriad of drastic changes and extreme events which affect the present-day state of the country. Once one of the fastest-growing economies in the Americas, the former French colony now suffers, and has suffered for many decades, from underdevelopment and the issues that come with it.
Even though the current crises go back many years, July 7th 2021 marked one of the key events in recent history, when president Jovenel Moise was assassinated by a group of mercenaries with alleged ties to important figures in the government and local Haitian gangs. A year has passed since the president’s passing, the current leader, Prime Minister Ariel Henry has led the government ever since, and he, as well as many other officials have asked countries and the United Nations for foreign aid as well as a possible intervention in order to provide assistance for the country and its people. Haiti, however, has had a troubled history regarding foreign aid, where a great percentage of the population strongly opposes it, causing public unrest.
Because of its current state and difficulties caused by this underdevelopment, Haiti currently holds the position of the poorest country in the Americas, where a majority of its residents live below the World Bank’s poverty line. Cholera and other diseases have rampaged the population, and 40% of it lacks access to essential healthcare services. National disasters and their aftermath have also caused problems for the country, and the mismanagement of humanitarian relief, inflation, political instability, foreign debt, and local gang violence are also some of the issues that affect the nation and prevent it from improving.
The Security Council is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, with its primary responsibility being the maintenance of international peace and security. Within the UN, it is tasked to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression, call upon the parties to settle a dispute by peaceful means, recommend methods of adjustment or terms of settlement, and in some cases, impose sanctions or authorize the use of force to maintain or restore international peace and security. The Council is composed of five permanent and ten non-permanent Member States, with each of the latter being elected for two-year terms. It is the only UN organ that can adopt binding resolutions.
In MUNUSAL 2023, we aim to simulate the committee with double delegation format as an additional special feature! In this format, each Member State can be represented by two delegates as a team (popularly known in MUN colloquialism as “power couples”), which would allow them to coordinate and make better decisions as well as more efficient multitasking. In return, this should reduce workload at certain points in time, which leads to a better flow of debate and a better Resolution to each topic. Additionally, if you are a first-time or newer delegate, you should have more confidence in joining the (often perceived as advanced) committee, as you will be able to enjoy the experience with someone more experienced beside you!
Please note countries marked with an * are reserved for experienced delegates
Countries in red text are no longer available.
Keep in mind applications early on in a wave have a better chance of obtaining their first option